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but it usually implies that the water entry is low on the wheel.Most water wheels in the United Kingdom and the United States are (or were) vertical wheels rotating about a horizontal axle, but in the Scottish highlands and parts of Southern Europe mills often had a horizontal wheel (with a vertical axle).The main difficulty of water wheels is their dependence on flowing water, which limits where they can be located.Modern hydroelectric dams can be viewed as the descendants of the water wheel, as they too take advantage of the movement of water downhill.Breastshot and undershot wheels can be used on rivers or high volume flows with large reservoirs.the horizontal wheel is a primitive and inefficient form of the modern turbine.
Overshot and pitchback water wheels are suitable where there is a small stream with a height difference of more than 2 meters, often in association with a small reservoir.
Stream wheels are cheaper and simpler to build, and have less of an environmental impact, than other type of wheel.
They do not constitute a major change of the river.
Most commonly, the wheel is mounted vertically on a horizontal axle, but can also be mounted horizontally on a vertical shaft, for example the tub or Norse.
Vertical wheels can transmit power either through the axle or via a ring gear and typically drive belts or gears; horizontal wheels usually directly drive their load.